Macrophage Polarization Assay

ProMab Biotechnologies offers custom assays to induce different macrophage subsets and characterize their polarization states.

ProMab Biotechnologies Custom Macrophage Polarization Assays

Macrophages exert multiple functions including modulating the adaptive immune responses and responding to pathogens. Macrophages show specific functions and phenotypes in response to different stimuli. They can display polarized states via their plasticity and different populations of macrophages can be developed in response to different stimuli.

The macrophage polarization has been classified as being either M1 (pro-inflammatory) or M2 (anti-inflammatory) state, which is further divided into M2a, M2b, M2c and M2d subsets.


Figure 1. The main polarization states of activated macrophages. (Atri, 2018)

Our assay platform can generate various macrophage subsets by treating isolated bone marrow-derived or peritoneal macrophages with specific stimuli, such as IFN-γ (M1), IL-4 (M2a), LPS and IL-1β (M2b) or IL-10 (M2c). In addition, we also provide the verification of each polarized macrophage based on the distinctly produced cytokines or expressed surface markers. The analysis of cytokines expression and surface markers is usually carried out by ELISA or flow cytometry, upon request.

Each macrophage polarization state demonstrates a unique cytokine profile and cell surface marker profile that can be used to characterize the macrophage populations in tissue inflammatory conditions to further understand disease pathogenesis and support the cell and gene therapy-based IO drugs development. Specifically, different macrophage populations can be generated by different stimuli, for example, IFNγ, LPS, IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, IL-6, glucocorticoids, adenosines and immune complexes, etc.

Contact us today for a proposal to support all of your Macrophage Polarization needs.



  1. Iqbal, S. and Kumar, A. (2015). Characterization of In vitroGenerated Human Polarized Macrophages. J Clin Cell Immunol. 6:6.
  2. Atri, C.;et al. (2018). Role of Human Macrophage Polarization in Inflammation during Infectious Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 19(6), p.1801.

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