Recombinant Antibodies

Recombinant antibodies are monoclonal antibodies which have been generated in vitro from a synthetic gene in the absence of hybridoma technology or animal immunization. The antibody genes are cloned into an expression vector and transfected into a mammalian cell line for expression. Unlike traditional monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies, recombinant antibodies may offer several advantages. 

  1. Consistency - Recombinant antibody production involves sequencing of the light and heavy chains; as such, it’s highly consistent, reliable, and easily reproducible. In addition, since the recombinant antibody sequence is engineered, it has greater sensitivity and confirmed specificity. 

  2. Scalability - Recombinant antibodies are produced in vitro, hence, we can generate them in large-scales. In addition, since the recombinant antibody sequence is known, continuity of supply is guaranteed.

ProMab Biotechnologies has 20 years of experience developing monoclonal antibodies of the highest quality. We have invested in recombinant antibody technology to effectively produce the most specific, reliable, and consistent antibodies. This has given us the ability to extend our antibody engineering capabilities, including the generation of bispecific antibodies. To learn more about our services, or to ask any questions, please click below: 




Generating a recombinant antibody requires expertise in antibody engineering. Our team has decades of antibody engineering experience that we will utilize to help you create a recombinant antibody that works for the intended application. Learn more about the different types of recombinant antibody formats we can generate and its application below. 


1. Full-Length Antibodies: These are the most common recombinant antibody formats and consist of two heavy chains and two light chains. They can be produced in various formats, such as IgG, IgM, and IgA. IgG is the predominant full-length antibody used in current antibody therapies. 


2. Single-Chain Variable Fragments (scFv): scFv antibodies are made up of a single heavy and light chain (of the variable region) linked together by a peptide linker. They may be smaller in size, but they retain full-length antibody specificity, have low immunogenicity, and may have better penetration into tumors compared to full-length antibodies. 


3. Fab (Fragment Antigen Binding) Fragments: Fab fragments are composed of one constant and one variable domain of each of the heavy and light chains, linked together by a peptide linker. Similar to scFVs, Fab fragments retain full-length antibody specificity, have low immunogenicity and may have better penetration into tumors compared to full-length antibodies. 


4. Single-Domain Antibodies (sdAbs): sdAbs, also known as nanobodies, are small antibody fragments that consist of a single variable domain. The overall structure of sdAbs is more hydrophilic which contributes to its increased stability, solubility, and resistance to aggregation. In fact, sdAbs are resistant to extreme temperatures and pH, making them ideal drug candidates for treating respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases. 


5. Bispecific Antibodies: Bispecific antibodies contain two different binding sites that can simultaneously recognize and bind two different antigens. They can be produced in various formats, such as IgG-like bispecific antibodies, bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs), and dual variable domain (DVD) antibodies. They can be designed to recruit and activate immune cells, interfere with signaling pathways, or to force associations between proteins. In particular, bispecific antibodies have been explored for cancer therapy, drug delivery, and neurodegenerative diseases. 


6. Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs): ADCs are targeted medicines that are designed to selectively target cancer cells and deliver the drug directly to the tumor while protecting healthy cells. ADCs are composed of a monoclonal antibody chemically linked to a cytotoxic drug. Upon antigen binding, the ADC releases the linked drug into the tumor cell directly which limits on-target, off-tumor toxicity. Depending on your project needs, we can help you design cleavable or non cleavable linkers for your ADCs. 


7. Fc-Fusion Proteins: Fc-fusion proteins are proteins that contain the Fc region of an antibody fused to a protein of interest. Typically the protein has therapeutic properties, and when fused with the Fc-domain, the protein is endowed with beneficial biological and pharmacological properties such as increasing half-life (which prolong therapeutic activity), stability, solubility, and potency. 


Recombinant Antibody Service Steps

Phase Description Cost
Phase I DNA synthesis of VH and VL sequences provided by customer $3,500
Subclone VH and VL inserts into expression plasmids --> Heavy chain (HC) and Light chain (LC)
Small-scale antibody expression in mammalian system and validation
Phase II Mid-scale expression of recombinant protein by co-transfection in HEK or CHO cells $2,500
Purification of antibodies by protein G and validation
Phase III Large scale (1L) expression of recombinant antibodies by transient transfection in HEK cells $3,500
Purification of antibodies by protein G and validation




Other Custom Services: 

Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies 


Human Monoclonal Antibodies 

Hybridoma Sequencing