Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) also known as cluster of differentiation 274 (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD274 gene. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a 40kDa type 1 transmembrane protein that has been speculated to play a major role in suppressing the adaptive arm of immune systems. PD-L1 binds to its receptor, PD-1, found on activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells, to modulate activation or inhibition. PD-L1 binding to its receptor PD-1 on T cells delivers inhibitory signaling to TCR-mediated activation of IL-2 production and T cell proliferation. PD-L1 is shown to be highly expressed in a variety of malignancies, particularly lung cancer. In order to anticipate the effectiveness of gene therapy or systemic immunotherapy in blocking the PD-1 and PD-L1 checkpoints, PD-L1 might be employed as a prognostic marker and a target for anti-cancer immunity. The mRNA is generated by in vitro transcription (IVT) from linearized DNA template with CAR sequence. This IVT mRNA is capped using CleanCap, our proprietary co-transcriptional capping method, which results in the naturally occurring Cap 1 structure with high capping efficiency. It is polyadenylated and optimized for mammalian systems. It mimics a fully processed mature mRNA. The mRNA is embedded in proprietary LNP mix using microfluidics method and used for transfection of cells.